Provisions of the Law on Labor Relations and the General Collective Agreement for the Private Sector in the Field of Economy, in favor of the workers, and “unknown” to the Macedonian employers  

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The Law on Labor Relations regulates the labor relations between workers and employers, which are established by concluding an employment contract. The purpose of the law is to include workers in the work process, as well as to ensure the harmonized conduct of that process, while respecting the right of workers to freedom of labor, dignity and protection of the interests of workers in the employment relationship. This law also regulates the labor relations of the employees employed in the state government bodies, the bodies of the local self-government units, institutions, public enterprises, institutes, funds, organizations and other legal and natural persons that employ workers, unless otherwise provided by another law. determined. Also, this law applies to the labor relations between the employers who have their registered office or residence in the Republic of Macedonia and their employees, when the work is permanently performed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as in cases when the employer temporarily sends the employee to work abroad.

          Vacation

The employee is entitled to paid annual leave (vacation) of at least 20 working days. The annual leave with a collective agreement or employment contract can be extended up to 26 working days. The duration of the annual leave is determined according to the time spent in employment, working conditions and other criteria determined by the collective agreement. Holidays, Saturdays and Sundays and days off, sick leave, as well as other cases of justified absence from work are not counted in the days of annual leave. A working day is considered any working day that is according to the schedule of working hours with the employer for the specific employee designated as a working day. The employee who establishes employment for the first time acquires the right to a full annual leave, when he / she performs continuous work of at least six months with the same employer, regardless of whether the employee works full time or shorter than full time.) Annual leave after rule is used during the calendar year. The annual leave can be used in several parts in agreement with the employer, with one part of the annual leave must last at least two uninterrupted working weeks. The employer is obliged to provide the employee with the use of 12 working days of annual leave until the end of the current calendar year, and the rest until June 30 of the following year. The employee has the right to use the leave for care and custody of the child until June 30 of the next calendar year. The annual leave is used taking into account the needs of the work process, as well as the possibilities for rest and recreation of the employee taking into account his family responsibilities. Any agreement by which the employee would waive the right to annual leave is null and void. A fine in the amount of 2,000 to 3,000 euros in denar counter-value will be imposed on the employer-legal entity for a misdemeanor, if it does not comply with the above provisions.

            Termination of the employment contract

The employment contract expires:

1) by the expiration of the time for which it was concluded;

2) upon the death of the employee or the employer (natural person);

3) due to termination of the employer in accordance with law;

4) by amicable termination;

5) by cancellation;

6) by court judgment and

7) in other cases determined by law.

The fixed-term employment contract ceases to be valid upon the expiration of the term for which it was concluded, ie when the contracted work is completed or with the termination of the reason for which it was concluded. The parties may terminate the employment contract at any time by written agreement which must contain a provision on the consequences that occur for the employee due to the termination of the contract during the exercise of the rights based on unemployment insurance. The agreement is signed on the day of termination of employment and it should contain a handwritten name and surname of the employee and by the employer, handwritten date of termination of employment by the employee and the employer and handwritten signature of the employee and the employer. If the agreement for termination of the employment contract is concluded contrary to the above, it is null and void.

The employee can terminate the employment contract if he / she has stated in writing that he / she wants to terminate the employment contract. The employer may terminate the employment contract only if there is a valid reason for dismissal related to the employee’s conduct (personal reason on the part of the employee), due to violation of work order and discipline or work obligations (fault) and  discipline or work obligations (cause of guilt) or if the cause is based on the employer’s functioning needs (business cause).

The employer may terminate the employment contract of the employee, when it is not possible to extend the employment, if:

1) the employee due to his / her behavior, lack of knowledge or opportunities or due to non-fulfillment of the special conditions determined by law, is not able to perform the contractual or other obligations from the employment relationship (personal reason) or

2) the employee violates the contractual obligations or other obligations from the employment relationship (cause of guilt) and

3) the need to perform certain work under the conditions specified in the employment contract ceases due to economic, organizational, technological, structural or similar reasons on the part of the employer (business reasons).

            Overtime work

The basic salary of the employee is increased per hour at least by:

– overtime work …………………………………….. 35%

– work at night ……………………………………….. ……… .35%

– work in three shifts … ………………………………….. 5 %

– work on a day of weekly rest … ……………. … 50%

For work on holidays and non-working days determined by law, the employee is entitled to compensation of the salary that belongs to him when he does not work on those days and the salary for the hours worked increased by 50%. The accessories are not mutually exclusive. The employee exercises the right to increased compensation on the basis of work in three shifts only for effectively conducted working time in shifts. The basic salary of the employee is increased by 0.5% for each year of service.

            Vacation recourse (K15)

Recourse for annual leave in the amount of at least 40% of the base, provided that the employee has worked for at least 6 months in the calendar year with the same employer. This right follows the employee regardless of whether he / she ends the current year with an employer. In this case, the employee acquires employment for 6 months of the calendar year, regardless of the date of establishment and termination of employment.

            Conclusion

The above is a summary of all the imperative and mandatory provisions of the legal norms that regulate the matter of labor relations. This means that employers must not violate or otherwise modify them. Hence, it can be logically concluded that the obligation of the employers is a right to the workers and, as such, a legal basis for a lawsuit before a competent court.

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